Management of NATL's upland pine, 1993 to date

Summary Document.

For the purposes of this account, NATL's upland pine (see map) will be designated as:

PAP = Public Area upland pine=UP Blocks A and B
nPAP = PAP north of Main Trail=UP Block A
sPAP = PAP south of Main Trail=UP Block B
RAP = Restricted Area upland pine=UP Blocks C, D, and E
nRAP = RAP north of Gasline Trail=UP Block C
(also known as the Prestwich Tract)
sRAP = RAP south of Gasline Trail =UP Block D (and E, after 2008)
sRAPw = Western part of sRAP= UP Block D
sRAPe = Eastern part of sRAP (added in 2008)= UP Block E.

Unless specified otherwise, the tasks involved in restoring NATL's upland pine were done by volunteers. An essential, continuing part of the restoration is arranging for and supervising controlled burns. After a problem with the first burn, Alan Long became NATL's Burn Master and no problems occurred during his ten-year tenure. Tom Workman followed Alan Long as Burn Master and supervised his first burn in August 2007, but UF's budget troubles caused him to leave a year later and Alan Long accepted the position once more. In 2010, upon Alan's retirement, Leda Kobziar became Burn Master. In fall 2012, Michael Andreu was assigned that responsibility. The most time-consuming task in the first nine years of restoration was reducing invading hardwoods (mostly laurel oaks) by cutting or girdling. Initially, the three principal volunteers, in order of contribution, were Tom Walker, Ken Prestwich (College of the Holy Cross, Worcester, MA), and Clay Scherer (EYN graduate student). In 2004, Ken Prestwich had taken the lead with Tom Walker helping. More recently Tom Walker, helped by Ethan Carter, has taken the responsibility in Block E.

For the 1996 burn, the fire lanes were disked by the Agronomy Department. For the 1998-2000 burns, they were disked by Reggie Wilcox, an employee of Entomology and Nematology; for later burns, by the Physical Plant Division (PPD).

July 1993. In Fig. 2 of the original proposal to establish a "Campus Natural Area and Outdoor Teaching Laboratory" the entire area north of Main Trail is to be managed to continually demonstrate old-field succession. Below the Main Trail, the boundary between pine and hammock is based on the then-current vegetation.

Spring 1995. Ken Preswich and volunteers from the Department of Entomology and Nematology begin girdling laurel oaks north of Main Trail.

29 Sep 1995. At an NAAC meeting, Jack Putz proposes that the area with large longleaf pines north of Main Trail be managed as part of NATL's upland pine ecosystem. NAAC agrees and specifies that a boundary between Upland Pine and Old-Field Succession be determined by the next meeting.

October 1995. A boundary between Upland Pine and Old-Field Succession that approximates the present one is proposed and approved via email and becomes part of the map used on the new NATL web site and the first NATL pamphlet.

10 Apr 1996. PAP is burned with the burn extending into most of the portion that will later be "no burn." It also extends into the western portions of old-field Plots A and C. The controlled burn, by the Austin Cary fire crew, goes well, but smoldering wood and litter were not extinguished. During the night, a strong thermal inversion allowed smoke to be drawn into Phillips Center, Doyle Conner Building, and Entomology and Nematology building.

11 Apr 1996. Personnel from IFAS Facilities Operations, Physical Plant, and the Fire Department extinguish the sources of the smoke with water and with sand hauled in and dumped in piles along the trails. The air filters in the Phillips Center are replaced, reducing the smell of smoke and preventing cancellation of the biggest concert of the season.

July 1996. Laurel oaks in the area north of gridline 4 in nPAP are girdled. No herbicide is applied to the girdles, with the result that even though the trees above their girdles died, root sprouts continue to be a major problem for the next eight years. [Starting in spring of 2000, Garlon is applied to new girdles and to the stumps of felled laurel oaks, wild cherries, and mimosas with the result that the roots generally die before sprouting occurs.]

January 1997. Reference photographs are taken at every grid stake in NATL's 50-meter grid.

27-28 May 1997. Volunteers from the Entomology and Nematology Student Organization plant in PAP 330 slips of wiregrass and 160 slips of forbs that Jack Putz has produced using stocks from the Withlacoochee State Forest.

early June 1997. Tom Walker plants in PAP the remaining 300 forb slips donated by Jack Putz.

June 1997. Volunteers from Entomology and Nematology complete the girdling of laurel oaks in nPAP.

2 Oct 1997. Two upland pine no-burn areas are proposed and given preliminary approval. (Final approval is at the 19 Mar 1998 NAAC meeting.)

12 Mar 1998. PAP is successfully burned under the direction of Alan Long.

fall 1998. Tom Walker clears the pathway for the 34th Street berm, designed to shield RAP from the sights and sounds of the six lanes of 34th Street traffic.

16 Mar 1999. sRAP is burned under the direction of Alan Long. Nowhere is the fire hot enough to kill a significant portion of the target vegetation and significant areas do not burn at all.

4 Feb 2000. PAP is successfully burned under the direction of Alan Long.

18 Jun 2000. Ken Prestwich finds an active gopher tortoise burrow in nRAP, ca 50 ft south of DPI compound. Prior to this, the last known active burrow was at the DPI fence in 1995.

5 Oct 2000. Ten-inch-long gopher tortoise seen on the firelane along the berm in grid block A8.

13 Jun 2001. John Foltz reports a longleaf pine in nPAP, between gridstakes E3 and E4, attacked by southern pine beetles and already faded. Tree is not felled and treated but left for wildlife. (This is the only longleaf pine that NATL loses to the 2001 southern pine beetle outbreak, but it loses more than 70 loblollies.)

13 Dec 2001. Under the direction of Erick Smith, PPD personnel plant 1125 longleaf pine seedlings in RAP and 1250 in PAP. (None survive the severe drought during the spring of 2002.)

6 Mar 2002. PAP successfully burned under the direction of Alan Long.

22 Jun 2002. Ken Prestwich nearly completes his project of girdling and cutting the laurel oaks in sRAP.

20 & 22 May 2003. Tom Walker bush-hog mows the western third of nPAP to facilitate the planting of small longleaf pines supplied by PPD.

21-25 May 2003. Ken Prestwich and Tom Walker plant 107 small longleaf pines in the bush-hogged area in nPAP.

25-27 Jun 2003. Ken Prestwich plants 50 longleaf pines in bush-hogged area in nPAP.

30 Jun-2 Jul 2003. Forestry Service uses a Positrac mega-mulching-machine to mulch most of the sprouts, stumps, and down wood in NATL's upland pine. (Alan Long arranged for this service.)

2 Jul 2003. Ken Prestwich and Tom Walker plant 39 longleaf pines in bush-hogged and Positracked areas of nPAP.

3-5 Jul 2003. Tom Walker plants 42 longleaf pines in sPAP.

18 Feb 2004. PAP and nRAP is burned under the direction of Alan Long. Burn starts in nRAP, where the fire was weak and skipped some areas. Burn in PAP is more complete and effective. Alan Long decides that the south extreme of sRAP is too close to cars in the Regency Oaks parking lot to risk burning.

2 Mar 2004. Tom Walker clears and bush-hog mows a pathway for a new fire lane in sRAP about 100 ft north of South Trail.

late March 2004. Tom Walker estimates that about 90% of the small longleaf pines planted last May to July in PAP survived the 18 Feb 2004 fire, even though the needles had been killed.

24 May 2004. Ken Prestwich and Tom Walker fertilize the longleaf pines planted previous May to July that they can find. Some had recently died from the drought and others were dying. Many were thriving.

28 May to 1 Jun 2004. On the west side of nPAP, Ken Prestwich and Tom Walker transplant 108 bunches of wiregrass from the small pots where they had been grown by PPD.

2-3 Jun 2004. On the east side of nPAP, Ken Prestwich and Tom Walker transplant 114 bunches of wiregrass from the small pots where they had been grown by PPD.

4-7 Jun 2004. On the west side of sPAP, Ken Prestwich and Tom Walker transplant 73 bunches of wiregrass from the small pots where they had been grown by PPD.

7-24 Jun 2004. Ken Prestwich eliminates the dense "excess" of devil's walkingstick in sPAP by clipping and treating with Garlon, does same for much mimosa in nRAP, and cuts and girdles laurel oaks missed in previous years in nRAP.

30 Jun 2004. Tom Walker plants 12 (12-18 inches, PPD-provided) turkey oaks in sPAP (one per set of wiregrass transplants).

1-19 Jul 2004. Tom Walker plants 38 turkey oaks in nPAP.

13-14 Jul 2004. Tom Walker bush-hog mows the undergrowth in sRAP.

23-27 Jul 2004. Tom Walker plants 35 PPD-supplied, six-foot longleaf pines in nPAP.

28-29 Jul 2004. Tom Walker plants 17 PPD-supplied, six-foot longleaf pines in sPAP.

31 Jul 2004. Tom Walker plants 200 wire grass plugs in nRAP upland pine: 50 from NW corner east to big pine; 150 from NW corner south to near SW corner. (Plugs bought by Ken Prestwich.)

1 Aug 2004. Tom Walker plants 175 wire grass plugs in nRAP: turn SW corner and go east toward B10 (every 10 ft east go north and plant >12 plugs). (Plugs bought by NAAC.)

2 Aug 2004. Tom Walker plants 125 wire grass plugs in nRAP: go east to mudhole beyond B10 (every 15 ft east go north and plant >12 plugs). (Plugs bought by NAAC.)

4 Oct 2004. Survey of damage caused by hurricanes Frances and Jeanne reveals three downed longleaf pines in sRAP, with DBHs of 12, 12, and 16 inches. (An 18-inch DBH longleaf is recorded just east of nPAP, in old-field Plot D.)

28 Jan to 16 Feb 2005. Tom Walker uses hoe to clear litter and undergrowth around longleaf pines and turkey oaks planted in PAP during the previous summer (to prevent controlled burn from killing turkey oaks and burning pines).

2 Mar 2005. Alan Long directs a controlled burn of RAP and sPAP. Some portions of RAP fail to burn.

14 Apr 2005. Alan Long leads a successful control burn of nPAP. A few portions failed to burn.

30 Apr to 29 Sep 2005. Tom Walker monitors health of 52 6-ft pines planted in PAP. Nineteen die, mostly from winter and spring defoliation by red-headed pine sawflies but some from ant-tended scale infestations that are accompanied by heavy growths of sooty mold on the needles. Beginning in June, after hand-removal of sawflies from infested trees proves ineffective (and with help from Ken Prestwich), malathion is sprayed directly on (and only on) the clusters of sawflies on infested trees. Fifteen of the 52 trees has one or more sawflies infestations. The area within 2.5 ft of each 6-ft pine is kept clear of competing vegetation with Round-up (7 Jun), hoeing, and manual weeding.

9 to 10 Jun 2005. Ken Prestwich and Tom Walker plant 50 wire grass clumps provided by PPD near north edge of nPAP.

15 Jun to 5 Jul 2005. Ken Prestwich and Tom Walker plant 167 one-gallon longleaf pines in nPAP and 114 in sPAP. A volunteer group plants 8 in nPAP. All but 1 of the 289 pines are planted in 48 numbered sets of six with a 5-ft, green-flagged stake marking the center of each set. Each pine is staked with a 2.5 ft PVC stake and given an identifying letter within its set. The area described by each set is cleared with a fire rake and/or spraying with Roundup. Of the 289 pines planted, 84 are grass stage, grown by PPD, and 205 are "ready-to-shoot", purchased from a nursery by PPD's Erick Smith.

20 Jun 2005. Ken Prestwich finds three longleaf pine seedlings in nPAP that have germinated in situ, the first discovered within the NATL areas being restored to upland pine.

20 Jun to 19 Jul 2005. Tom Walker maps and numbers the turkey oaks planted in 2004 in PAP. With help from Ken Prestwich, he uses a fire rake to clear around each transplant. Of the 38 turkey oaks planted in nPAP and the 12 planted in sPAP, he finds 30 and 7 alive. These 37 are marked with 5-ft, red-orange-flagged stakes, mapped, and numbered.

9 Jul 2005. Tom Walker measures the 39 surviving 6-ft longleaf pines and fertilizes every other one with one half cup 10-10-10.

20 Jul 2005. Tom Walker measures the 37 surviving turkey oaks and fertilizes every other one with one half cup of 10-10-10 fertilizer.

23-26 Jul 2005. Sally Wazny and Tom Walker plant 500 wire grass slips in sRAP.

1 to 6 Sep 2005. Tom Walker (with Lucie Treadwell's help) measures the 286 surviving longleaf pines planted in 2005 and rings every other one with one-fourth cup of 10-10-10 fertilizer.

7 Sep 2005. Tom Walker (with Lucie Treadwell's help) measures the 33 surviving 6-ft longleafs and fertilizes the ones fertilized before (on 9 Jul 2005) with one half cup of 10-10-10. The average growth of the fertilized trees is slightly greater than the average growth of the unfertilized trees (0.144 vs. 0.129 m).

28 and 30 Sep 2005. Tom Walker (with Lucie Treadwell's help) inspects and weeds the 286 surviving longleaf pines planted in 2005 and the 33 surviving 6-ft longleafs. No new deaths, no sawflies, and no signs of moisture shortage.

ca 26 Nov to 12 Dec 2005. Ken Prestwich worked for 2 hours or more most every day in PAP, mostly cutting tall brush and treating the stumps with Garlon 3.

Dec 2005 to Jan 2006. Thousands of longleaf pine seeds germinated in NATL's upland pine. Seedlings thickest in vicinity of mature longleaf pines and where mineral soil was exposed.

28 Jan and 1 Feb 2006. Replaced the 8 longleaf pines that had died in the 48 sets of six transplanted in 2005.

17 Feb 2006. Kevin Ratkus and Erick Smith staked and mapped 12 save-some-seedlings action sites in sRAP and 12 in nRAP.

20 Feb-Mar 10 2006. Ken Prestwich returns to Gainesville and works regularly in NATL's upland pine--mainly cutting laurel oak sprouts that are 5 ft and higher and painting the stumps with Garlon.

27 Feb-6 Mar 2006. KP and TJW fine tune the position and mapping of the 24 SSS sites in RAP. At each site three focal seedlings are selected and flagged and the surrounding area cleared so as to not admit or support fire during the controlled burn. Outside the cleared areas, 32 focal seedlings were selected to determine the effect of the wet-towel treatment outside of cleared areas.

20 Mar-1 May 2006. Ken Prestwich returns to Gainesville and works regularly in NATL's upland pine--mainly cutting laurel oak sprouts that are 5 ft and higher and painting the stumps with Garlon.

29-30 Mar 2006. TJW waters all flagged seedlings in SSS sites in RAP.

6 Apr 2006. Watered the 62 longleaf seedlings flagged for the sPAP SSS project. Staked and numbered 20 SSS sites in nPAP and flagged two seedlings at each.

7 Apr 2006. Completed staking, numbering, and mapping of the 33 SSS sites in nPAP. Watered seedlings at 20 of these sites.

8 Apr 2006. TJW completed flagging and watering seedlings at the SSS sites in nPAP.

14 Apr 2006. TJW used Garlon 4 and new sprayer to do first pass of basal stem spraying all the devil's walking sticks in PAP.

25 Apr 2006. TJW and Ken P. chainsawed hackberry and elderberry in SE sPAP and applied Garlon to the stumps.

2 to 4 May 2006. TJW, KP, and Lucy Treadwell planted 313 longleaf slips (donated by Don Dickson) in RAP: 140 in sRAP: five groups of 12, with subgroups of 3, along south firelane (n=60); 8 around periphery of each of the twelve SSS sites (n=80). Each transplant required about half gallon of water, transported in 1-gallon milk jugs.

6 May 2006. TJW applied 1.5 gal glyphosate to enlarge 12-pine sites #58-62 in sRAP. Used about a pint of Garlon 4 to basal stem spray mostly devil's walking stick but also some mimosa, laurel oak, etc in PAP.

16 May 2006. TJW used 3.5 gal Glypro to expand the 6-pine circles in sPAP and circles 22 to 28 in nPAP. Ken P. used about 3 pts of Garlon 4 to basal stem spray devil's walkingstick, laurel oak, and mimosa in sPAP.

19 May 2006. TJW and KP work a total of 9 hours to census and water the 313 container-grown pines planted in RAP 2-4 May 06. About 95% had survived (n=297) and about 87% were expected to survive (n=271). This required about 105 gallons of water.

20 May 2006. TJW spent 3 hours censusing the seedlings at the 65 SSS sites in PAP and watering surviving seedlings. Of the 130 seedlings originally flagged, 27 had died with no nearby substitutes available (=21% mortality). Used about 15 gallons of water.

26 May 2006. TJW and KP spent 9 manhours watering the container grown pines and the flagged SSS seedlings. Of the 313 container-grown pines planted in RAP about 89% had survived (n=280) and about 80% were expected to survive (n=249). Of the 130 seedlings originally flagged in PAP, 41 had died with no nearby substitutes available (=32% mortality). Used about 110 gal water.

8 Jun 2006. Kevin Ratkus, KP, and TJW water the container-grown LLP transplants and SSS project seedlings. Dying from drought continues.

15 and 16 July 2006. TJW found, flagged, and weeded 134 surviving container-grown llp transpants and 43 naturally germinated seedlings in RAP.

18 July 2006. TJW and KP plant 8 wiregrass slips in each of the 29 restoration islands in nPAP for a total of 232 slips.

19 July 2006. TJW and KP plant wiregrass slips in rest of restoration islands and in the 24 s-s-s circles for a total of 344 slips.

20 July 2006. KP and TJW plant the remaining 421 wiregrass slips in the 65 save-some-seedling sites and near the 30 surviving 2-m pines in PAP and in the 46 container-grown pine trios in RAP.

Aug 2006. Kevin plants 20 l-gal longleaf pines in RAP at sites where all or all-but-one container grown pine had died and at SSS sites where all or all-but-one naturally germinated seedling had died.

16 Sep 2006. TJW and ca 12 volunteers weed upland pine restoration islands in PAP.

22 and 29 Sep 2006. TJW and Kevin R. weed container grown pines in RAP and seedling within circles in sRAP.

16 Oct 2006. Florida Division of Forestry uses its new Positrac mega-mulcher to bushhog three-fourths of the 7.5 acres of RAP.

18 Oct 2006. FDOF uses its older mulcher to bushhog the rest of RAP. They successfully avoid the small pines (recently planted container-grown or gallon pines and natural seedlings) that TJW had flagged in hopes of saving them.

9-10 Nov 2006. TJW and Tim Ruscello census the 65 SSS sites in PAP and take the markers from 34 of the 35 sites that no longer have surviving seedlings. The number of seedlings surviving was 47 (cf. 130 flagged in early April).

28 Nov 2006. TJW censuses turkey oaks planted in PAP in July 2004: 18 of 50 still alive. Stakes marking the planting sites removed except for three on east side of nPAP and two on west side of nPAP. Of the 18 alive, 15 were in nPAP.

15 and 17 Jan 2007. Tim R. and TJW rake flammables by hand from 5 small turkey oaks and ca 425 small pines in PAP.

5 Mar 2007. Alan Long, with great help from a variety of sources, executes an effective controlled burn of nPAP, sPAP, and nRAP (in that order); sRAP was not burned because smoke not lifting well from nRAP.

19-23 Mar 2007. TJW and Tim R. cut and poison and girdle and poison hardwoods and loblollies in PAP.

27 June 2007. TJW worked with Robbie Gugenheim (day laborer from Action Labor) for 8 hrs to weed 29 restoration circles in nPAP and to plant 295 2nd year containerized longleaf pines in blocks A8, B8, and C8 of nRAP. Also worked some in sPAP to get ready for weeding.

6 July 2007. David Reed (day laborer) and TJW weeded 19 restoration circles in sPAP. David Reed, Kevin Ratkus, and TJW planted 447 2nd year containerized longleaf pines in the remaining planting plots of nRAP. David Reed and TJW cut and poisoned mimosa and devil's walkingstick in nRAP.

14 July 2007. Kevin Ratkus with KP and five graduate student supervisors he had recruited used ca 25 volunteers to start the planting of 1000 pines and 630 wiregrass slips in nRAP. A thunderstorm curtailed the volunteer effort but the supervisors finished the job on their own. This amounted to ca 33 pines and 21 wiregrass in each of the 30 25x25m planting plots of nRAP. During the same time period TJW supervised 3 inappropriately dressed volunteers in the planting of 225 wiregrass slips in the 29 restoration islands of nPAP.

16 July 2007. KP and TJW planted 96 wiregrass slips in the north-most 16 restoration islands of sPAP.

8 Aug 2007. NATL's first summer burn. Burn Master Tom Workman, aided by Erick Smith and Kevin Ratkus, burned patches within sRAP that had sufficient fuel to carry the fire-mostly around the sparse mature longleaf pines. The Austin Cary brush truck was the support vehicle. Ken Prestwich and Tom Walker helped.

4, 11, and 22 Sep 2007. TJW, with help from Tim R., weeds 48 restoration islands.

28 Jan 2008. TJW, with help from Marissa S., censuses restoration islands: 85% of 289 pines planted in 2005 survive (mean height=55 cm); 165 2005-06 flagged seedlings survive

29 Feb 2008. Fire breaks established for eastward extension of sRAP and between gridpoints D8 and D10.

31 Mar 2008. TJW and Julian R. locate and mark with 5ft-stakes 24 of the containerized pines planted in 2007 in the main block of nRAP.

31 Mar 2008. Julian R. cuts and girdles some unwanted hardwoods in sRAP-e and applies Garlon 4 to stumps and girdles.

11 Apr 2008. Tom Workman heads control burn in sRAPe&w and nRAPe; burn largely unsuccessful.

28 May to 27 Aug 2008. KP basal stem sprays with Garlon 4 in red oil and mechanically removes "woody weeds" (mostly root sprouts of laurel oak and Smilax) from most of nPAP and a small portion of sPAP.

12-16 Jun 2008. nRAP bush-hog mowed in preparation for burning. Mower set high to save planted pines.

18 Jun 2008. Tom Workman heads burn of nRAP (including re-burn of east triangle) and of PAP except for the part of nPAP east of UP nature trail.

16-17 Jul 2008. 1200 wiregrass plugs planted in nRAP and 800 in PAP.

21 Oct 2008. Robert G. and TJW post the results of their identification, measuring, and GPS/GIS mapping of the 426 pre-1994 pines in NATL's upland pine ecosystem.

23 Dec 2008. PPD bush-hog mows RAP except for areas never bush-hogged before.

13 Feb 2009. TJW censuses restoration islands: 167 of 289 pines planted in 2005 survive (0.1 to 2.8m high, av=0.6m); most 2008 mortality (n=78) from 18 June burn. 48 of 170 2005-06 seedlings staked in Oct. 07 survive; most 2008 mortality (n=117) from spring drought (n~47) and 18 June burn (n~70). 0 of 265 2007-08 seedlings staked in Jan. 08 survive; most mortality from spring drought and 18 June burn.

16 Feb 2009. TJW censuses sites at which 2 2005-06 seedlings were flagged 6 Apr 06. Of the 65 sites, 5 sites had surviving 2005-06 seedlings (though usually not the ones originally flagged).

16 Feb 2009. TJW locates and measures the 4 survivors of the 248 one-gallon longleaf pines planted in PAP, May to July 2003.(2.0 to 2.6m high; mean=2.3m).

11 Mar 2009. PPD bush-hog mows 40% of a problem area at the south extreme of sRAP that was omitted during the 23 Dec 2008 bush-hogging of sRAP (in rest of area, vegetation later cut to knee high with a machete).

14 Apr 2009. Many large hardwoods in sRAPe girdled and poisoned (most were close to longleaf pines).

2 Jun 2009. Alan Long, Dan Schultz, Leda Kobziar, and 10 volunteers successfully burn nPAP (95% burned), sPAP (80%), and nRAP (60%).

11 Jun 2009. PPD bush-hogs sRAP except for the south extreme.

2 Jul 2009. 250 lopsided Indiangrass plugs planted in PAP, including 4 around the periphery of each of the 48 restoration islands.

24 Jul 2009. 347 wiregrass plugs planted in sRAP.

11 Sep 2009. 240 wiregrass plugs planted along gridlines 3, 4, and 5 in nPAP.

During 2009. Ken Prestwich works in PAP to eliminate woody weeds mechanically and with triclorpyr in oil during his one-week spring break in early March, from 22 May to 27 Aug, and during his Christmas break in December.

8 Feb 2010. Map of pines in sPAP updated using improved GPS capability.

28 Apr 2010. Alan Long leads fire crews from Austin Cary and TNC (plus forestry students) in attemps to burn Tracts A & B (100%), C (~60%), and D (~10%).

30 Jun 2010. 250 lopsided Indiangrass plugs planted in PAP, including 4 in each of the 48 restoration islands.

21, 26 Jul 2010. 1000 wiregrass plugs planted in PAP.

11 Aug 2010. 200 wiregrass plugs planted in nPAP.

18 Aug 2010. Alan Long and Leda Kobziar walk through NATL's upland pine with NATL staff to discuss future burns and their scheduling.

17, 30 Aug 2010. 600 wiregrass plugs planted in sPAP.

7 Sep 2010. Online displays of photographs developed and posted at Upland Pine Semi-Annual Photo Gallery to show the progress in restoring NATL's upland pine.

1 Dec 2010. Heavy-duty bushhog mower used to bushhog all of sRAPw and the roughest (eastern) portion of nRAP.

summer 2010. Ken Prestwich works during June, July, and August using a fire rake and herbicides to reduce unwanted plants in PAP and nRAP.

22 Dec 2010 to 19 Jan 2011. During his college's winter break, Ken Prestwich, using a fire rake and 2% triclopyr in water, worked chiefly in nRAPw (the Prestwich Tract) to reduce unwanted plants such as Smilax and laurel oak sprouts. He treated all of area except for a patch near the center and one in the SW corner. He also helped girdle and poison large, unwanted trees in RAP and to ready sRAPe for burning.

21 Feb 2011. Tom Walker and Ethan Carter complete the cutting and girdling of hardwoods in Block E in preparation for a spring controlled burn.

4-12 Mar 2011. Ken Prestwich works in Blocks E and C preparing them for burning by moving logs in E and spraying 2% Garlon 4 on Smilax and other undergrowth in s&e C.

22 Mar 2011. PPD disks fire breaks to prepare for spring controlled burns.

Apr to July 2011. No burn accomplished.

1-8 Jul 2011. Volunteers and staff plant >1000 wiregrass plugs in Block A.

20 Jul 2011. Volunteers and staff plant 300 wiregrass plugs in Block B.

2 Aug 2011. Volunteers and staff plant 700 wiregrass plugs in Block B.

24 Sep 2011. Volunteers and staff plant 400 wiregrass plugs in Block C.

26 Sep 2011. Ethan Carter completes the cutting and stump-poisoning of all mimosa in all blocks of NATL's upland pine.

22 Dec 2011. Volunteers work in Block E to ready it for burning by clearing brush and logs from the bases of big pines and by making downed trees more favorable for controlled burning.

11 Jan 2012. PPD tills fire breaks

26 Mar 2012. Donna Bloomfield of PPD tests the notion that leafblowers might be the best way to renew well-trodden and mowed firebreaks; it works!!

24 Apr 2012. Alan Long, with help from TNC and Austin Cary crews and volunteers, burns public area pine, with exception of small strip between UPNT and Block A’s east firebreak.

30 Apr 2012. Tom Walker and Peter Frederick convened 7 persons experienced in UP restoration to discuss options for progress in Block D.

8 Jun 2012. Based on the 30 Apr discussions, TW and PF complete plan for Blocks C and D with emphasis on using Block D in testing and demonstrating methods of restoring longleaf communities of 20 acres or less.

July to Nov. 2012. On three dates during this period Michael Drummond came to NATL to help staff and volunteers learn to identify grasses of interest and/or concern in NATL’s Public Area pine.

6 Dec 2012. PPD bush-hogs and discs the fire lanes of Block D.

18 Dec 2012. PPD bush-hogs Block D.

3 Jan 2013. PPD mistakenly bush-hogs about one third of Block C (in south and east).

16 Jan 2013. PPD removes dead and dangerous trees from Block E.

26 Jan 2013. NATL staff lead AGR volunteers to remove logs from UP Block E.

12 Jul 2013. Mary Barnwell, with help from Austin Cary and Ordway-Swisher, oversees burn of Blocks D and E. Poor burn conditions resulted in ~ 10% of area effectively burned.

July 2013. TW, KP, NATL OpComm members, and various volunteers during service events (Summer Plunge, Warrington Welcome) plant over 1500 wiregrass plugs in Block E

16 Aug 2013. KP and TW plant 130 plugs of lopsided Indiangrass and 70 plugs of purple lovegrass in Block E.

Aug 2013. NATL OpComm members and volunteers continue to plant wiregrass plugs, bring the summer 2013 total to 5000 plugs.

22 Dec 2013. Tom Workman leads crew in controlled burn of Blocks C and D. Burn coverage was approximately 75% in C and 15% in D.

9 Apr 2014. Tom Workman leads crew in controlled burn of UP Blocks A and B. Burn coverage was approximately 95% in A and 90% in B.

12 Feb 2015. Tom Workman and crew, with help from KP, TJW, and Leda Kobziar and her students, successfully burn Blocks C, D, and E. Burn coverage was approximately 95% in C, 60% in D, and 75% in E. Estimates were calculated using this form.

12-14 Feb 2015. KP and TJW work to extinguish an unusual number of vigorous "smokers" ignited during the controlled burn and continuing to reignite after burn crew departed.

Spreadsheets that summarize monitoring results